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  • Cross-Cultural Comparison of Mental Health Shame: Negative Attitudes and External, Internal, and Reflected Shame About Mental Health in Japanese and UK Workers

    Kotera, Yasuhiro; Sheffield, David; Green, Pauline; Asano, Kenichi; University of Derby; Mejiro University, Tokyo, Japan (Springer International Publishing, 2021-07-22)
    Although often categorised by cultural differences (e.g., collectivism and individualism), Japan and the United Kingdom have several cultural commonalities. One of them is that both countries are known to have a ‘shame culture’; people in these countries often recognise shame in their lives relating to their cultural virtues. While shame can lead to social conformity, this negative affect associated with a sense of inadequacy can also damage our wellbeing. Because of the rapid advancement of technologies in these economically developed countries in the 4IR, workers are put under greater pressure, which is associated with more mental health problems. Their challenged mental health is further exacerbated by strong shame associated with mental health problems. Accordingly, we examined mental health shame in UK and Japanese workers. Four hundred workers (131 Japanese and 269 UK workers) completed measures of mental health and mental health shame, specifically negative attitudes, external, internal, and reflected shame. The results showed that Japanese workers had higher levels of mental health problems and shame than UK workers. In both countries, mental health and shame were overall associated with each other, apart from some family-related variables in Japanese workers. Family reflected shame was a significant predictor in Japanese workers, while self reflected shame was a significant predictor in UK workers. We discuss the implications of these findings with particular reference on how to reduce mental health shame in Japanese and UK workplaces and the provision of solutions for better work mental wellbeing, relating to the advantages of technologies. Because shame often involves perception of others, online interventions may be useful as they can be undertaken by each worker at a private place (instead of their office). Such individualised interventions enabled by the technologies of the 4IR may help to address shame-associated mental health problems in modern workplaces.
  • Multiple emotions, multiple selves: compassion focused therapy chairwork

    Bell, Tobyn; Montague, Jane; Elander, James; Gilbert, Paul; University of Derby (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-07-19)
    Compassion focused therapy (CFT) is rooted in an evolutionary view of the human mind as formed of a multitude of contrasting, and often conflicting, motivations, emotions and competencies. A core aim of the therapy is to help clients understand the nature of their mind in a way that is de-pathologizing and de-shaming. The approach is also focused on the cultivation of compassion to work with these difficult aspects of mind. CFT includes the ‘multiple-selves’ intervention which involves the differentiation of threat-based emotion and an exploration of their conflict. Compassion is then applied to the client’s affective world to aid regulation and integration. This paper focuses on clients’ experiences of a chairwork version of multiple-selves, wherein clients personify their emotions in separate chairs. Nine participants with depression were interviewed directly following the intervention and the resulting data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three interconnecting themes were identified: appreciating emotional complexity; the role of chairwork process; and compassionate integration. The results highlight the importance of emotional differentiation in understanding internal multiplicity and conflict in depression, and the role of compassion in creating a sense of personal coherence. The embodied and enactive nature of chairwork was found to be of benefit in identifying and separating emotion, and in developing new forms of self-relating. The paper discusses the clinical implications of such findings for the treatment of depression.
  • A comprehensive review on the output voltage/power of wearable thermoelectric generators concerning their geometry and thermoelectric materials

    Soleimani, Zohreh; Zoras, Stamatis; Ceranic, Boris; Cui, yuanlong; Shahzad, Sally; University of Derby; University of Sheffield (Elsevier, 2021-07-09)
    Wearable thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are considered as a promising power supply for low power wearable electronics. To obtain high thermoelectric (TE) generation, the focus should be on two main factors, including TE materials and the configurations of TE legs. Concerning these two factors, this paper provides a comprehensive review of recent studies on wearable TEGs. In general, TE materials can be classified into three categories, including inorganic, organic, and hybrid (inorganic-organic). In addition, the TE legs can be prepared in three different configurations, including ingot-shaped, film-shaped, and yarn-shaped. Based on the reviewed literatures, the superior output powers of all the three configurations were achieved by the inorganic, hybrid, and organic TE materials, respectively. It should be noted that the ingot- and the yarn-shaped legs were mostly composed of the inorganic and the organic TE materials, respectively. Whereas, all the three types of TE materials were almost equally used to prepare the film-shaped legs. Regarding power density, the ingot-shaped legs stood first followed by the film- and the yarn-shaped legs, respectively. Precisely, the output powers of the ingot- and the film-shaped legs were at µW/cm2 level, dropping to nW/cm2 for the yarn-shaped legs.
  • Regional Economic Communities as the Building Blocs of the African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement

    Ajibo, Collins .C; Nwankwo, Chidebe .M; Ekhator, Eghosa; University of Nigeria; University of Derby (MARVIS BV, 2021-06-16)
    The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) recognises the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the building blocs for continent-wide integration in line with the historical efforts reflected in the Lagos Action Plan of 1980 and the transitional plan of the African Union (AU) articulated in the 1991 Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community (Abuja Treaty). The AfCFTA enjoins State Parties that are members of other RECs, which have attained among themselves higher levels of elimination of customs duties and trade barriers than those provided for under the Protocol, to continue maintaining this, and where possible improve upon, existing higher levels of trade liberalisation among themselves. While RECs are fundamental to the African integration experience and are considered the building blocs of AfCFTA, several challenges may emerge. This paper examines the prospects and challenges of RECs under the recently established AfCFTA regime.
  • Mapping urban greenspace use from mobile phone GPS data

    Mears, Meghann; Brindley, Paul; Barrows, Paul D.; Richardson, Miles; Maheswaran, Ravi; University of Sheffield; University of Derby (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2021-07-07)
    Urban greenspace is a valuable component of the urban form that has the potential to improve the health and well-being of residents. Most quantitative studies of relationships between health and greenspace to date have investigated associations only with what greenspace exists in the local environment (i.e. provision of greenspace), rather than to what extent it is used. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining usage data in large amounts. In recent years, GPS functionality integrated into mobile phones has provided a potential solution to this problem by making it possible to track which parts of the environment people experience in their day-to-day lives. In this paper, we demonstrate a method to derive cleaned, trip-level information from raw GPS data collected by a mobile phone app, then use this data to investigate the characteristics of trips to urban greenspace by residents of the city of Sheffield, UK. We find that local users of the app spend an average of an hour per week visiting greenspaces, including around seven trips per week and covering a total distance of just over 2.5 km. This may be enough to provide health benefits, but is insufficient to provide maximal benefits. Trip characteristics vary with user demographics: ethnic minority users and users from more socioeconomically deprived areas tend to make shorter trips than White users and those from less deprived areas, while users aged 34 years and over make longer trips than younger users. Women, on average, make more frequent trips than men, as do those who spent more time outside as a child. Our results suggest that most day-to-day greenspace visits are incidental, i.e. travelling through rather than to greenspace, and highlight the importance of including social and cultural factors when investigating who uses and who benefits from urban greenspace.

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